Risk Factors

Because the causes of PD are not known, there is currently no scientifically validated preventive course to reduce the risk of Parkinson's onset. The single biggest risk factor for PD is advancing age. Men have a slightly higher risk compared to women.  There is no strong evidence of ethnic differences in rates of Parkinson’s.

There are a number of behavioral factors which appear to be related to the onset of Parkinson’s: smoking and caffeine consumption have been associated with lower rates of Parkinson's disease, while head injury and pesticide exposure have been associated with higher risk. Unfortunately, very little can be definitively concluded about the causes of Parkinson’s; additional research is required to answer these questions.

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